Course Modules

Four Year Standard Programme

 First Year

First Semester

Course No Course Title     Units
Major Courses    
PHY  121 Fundamentals of Physics I 3
PHY 195 Practical Physics II 2
Required Ancillary Courses    
MTH  111 General Mathematics  I 3
MTH  121 General  Mathematics II 3
CHM  101 Basic Principles of Chemistry 1 2
CHM  171 Basic Practical Chemistry 2
General Studies
GSP 101 The Use of English I 2
Total   17

Second Semester

Major Courses

PHY  122 Fundamentals of Physics II 3
PHY  124 Fundamentals of Physics III 3
PHY  196 Practical Physics III 2

Required Ancillary Courses

MTH 122            General Mathematics III 3
CHM 112 Basic Principles of Chemistry II 2
CHM 122 Basic Principles of Chemistry III 2
General Studies
GSP 102 The Use of English II 2
Total 17

Second Year

First Semester

Major Courses

PHY 211 Structure of Matter 3
PHY 221 Mechanics 2
PHY 241 Waves 3
PHY 251 Electromagnetism 2

Required Ancillary Courses

MTH   207 Advanced Mathematics 2
COS    201 Computer Programming I 2
 General Studies    
GSP   201 Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution I  2
GSP   207  Humanities I  2
Total 18

Second Semester

Major Courses

PHY  242 Physical Optics 3
PHY  262 Introduction to Atomic & Nuclear Physics 3
PHY  292 Practical Physics IV 2

Required Ancillary Courses

MTH  206 Advanced Mathematics VII 2
MTH  208 Advanced Mathematics VIII 2

General Studies

GS  202 Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution II 2
GS  208 Humanities II 2
Total 16

Third Year

First Semester

Major Courses

PHY 301   Methods of Theoretical Physics I 2
PHY 311 Solid State Physics I 2
PHY 321 Relativity Physics 2
PHY 331 Thermal Physics 3
PHY 351 Electronics 2
PHY 391 Practical Physics V 2
PHY 393 Workshop Course I (Mechanical) 2

Elective Courses

A minimum of 3 Units to be chosen from the following

EE 211 Electrical Engineering I 3
ECE 311 Circuit Theory I 3
ECE 321 Physical Electronics 3
CHEM211 General Physical Chemistry 3
GEOL 211 Crystallography 2
STA203 Statistics for Physical Sciences & Engineering I 2
STA322 Regression Analysis 2
Total 18

 Second Semester

Major Courses

PHY 302 Methods of Theoretical Physics II 2
PHY 362 Quantum Mechanics I 3
PHY 382 An Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 3
PHY 392 Practical Physics VI 2
PHY 394 Workshop Course I (Electronics) 2
PHY 396 Measurements and Instrumentation 2

Elective Courses

A minimum of 3 Units to be chosen from the following

CS202 Computer Programming II 3
EE 251 Electrical Engineering Lab 1
ECE 312 Circuit Theory II 3
ECE 322 Applied Electronics 2
CHEM251 Chemical Process Principles 2
MTH 222 Elementary Differential Equations I  3
MTH 214 Mathematical Methods I 3
STA206 Mathematical Methods I 2
Total 17

Fourth Year

 First Semester

Major Courses

PHY401                                       Computational Physics 2
PHY  403 General Physics 2
PHY  421

PHY  451

PHY  461

Analytical Mechanics

Electromagnetic Theory

Quantum Mechanics II




PHY  491 Practical Physics VII 2

A minimum of 4 Units from the course from any one group or, subject to Departmental Approval, from different groups.

(i) Astrophysics

PHY485 Galaxies  2
PHY 487 High Energy Astrophysics 2

(ii) Geophysics

PHY 487 Meteorology 2
PHY 475 Industrial Geophysics 2

(iii) Industrial Physics

PHY 415 Science of Materials   2
PHY 475 Industrial Geophysics 2

(iv) Solar Energy Physics

PHY 441 Solar Energy I 2
PHY 443 Biomas Energy 2
PHY 445 Nuclear Energy I 2
Total  18

Major CoursesSecond Semester

PHY 416 Solid State Physics 3
PHY 438 Statistical Physics 2
PHY 462 Nuclear Physics 3
PHY 492 Practical Physics VIII 2
PHY 494 Project 4

A minimum of 4 Units to match the first Semester.

 (i) Astrophysics

PHY 486 Stellar Structure and Evolution 2
PHY 488 Modern Cosmology 2

(ii) Geophysics

PHY 472 Aeronomy 2
PHY 476 Physics of the Earth’s Interior 2

(iii) Industrial Physics

PHY 418 Physical Metallurgy 2
PHY 414 Introduction to Processes 2
PHY 456 Industrial Electronics 2

(iv) Solar Energy Physics

PHY 442 Solar Energy 2
PHY 444 Fossil Energy 2
PHY 446 Nuclear Energy II 2
Total  18

Three Year Standard Undergraduate Programme

The same as the four year standard programme with the first year deleted, except that direct entry students take GSP 101 and GSP 102 – The Use of English and either GSP 207 and GSP 208 – Humanities or GSP 201 and GSP 202 – Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution I.

Service Courses

For enrollment in the service course, students must have at least a pass in Physics at the G.C.E. ordinary level or in an equivalent examination.

First Semester

PHY 111 General Physics for Life Sciences 2
PHY 115 General Physics for Physical Sciences  2
PHY 191 Practical Physics I 2

Second Semester

PHY 112 General Physics for Life Sciences II 2
PHY 114 General Physics for Life Sciences III 2
PHY 116 General Physics for Physical Science II 2
PHY 118 General Physics for Physical Science III 2


  1. The service courses PHY 111, PHY 112, PHY 114 are especially designed for students in Faculties of Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine, Biological Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Medicine. (In these courses the use of calculus will be kept to a minimum).
  2. The service courses PHY 115, PHY 116, PHY 118 are recommended for students of the Faculties of Environmental and Physical Sciences.
  3. All Service Course Students except Engineering students are required to take PHY 191 – Practical Physics.
  4. Students of the Faculty of Engineering take PHY 121, PHY 116, PHY 124, and PHY 195  – Practical Physics II.

PHY  111        General Physics for Life Sciences I                                                       2 Units

Units and dimensions. Scalars and Vectors, Linear and Circular motion, velocity, acceleration. Laws of mechanics and gravitation; simple applications. Conservation of energy, momentum. Work and power. Simple harmonic motion, simple pendulum. Moment of inertia, Angular momentum; centrifugal and centripetal forces; centrifuge. Elasticity, Hook’s Law, Young’s modulus.  Fluids–pressure, surface tension, viscosity, osmosis, blood pressure and its measurement.

PHY   112       General Physics for Life Sciences II                                      2   Units

Concept of heat, temperature: measurement of temperature, clinical thermometer. Heat Capacity, specific heat, latent heat, calorimetry, Gas laws; Kinetic theory of gases. Thermal energy, isothermal and adiabatic changes. Conduction, convection ; radiation. Sound waves; intensity, pitch and quality of sound. Propagation of sound in solids, liquids and gases. Doppler effect. The ear. Reflection and refraction of light; plane and spherical mirrors, thin lenses; optical instruments. The eye, defects of vision and their corrections. Wave nature of light, interference, and diffraction. Velocity of light.

PHY    114      General Physics for Life Sciences III                                  2    Units

Electric charge, Coulomb’s Law, electric field, Electrostatic potential. Energy in electric field, Capacitors.  Dielectrics. Electric current, potential difference and electromotive force.  Ohm’s Law; potentiometer, meter bridge, Wheatstone bridge. Magnetic effects of current; permanent magnetism, earth’s magnetic field.  Faraday’s Law of induction, generators and electric motor.  Alternating currents. Maxwell’s equations.  Structure of the atom. Radioactivity.  X-rays applications in life sciences, Nuclear energy.

PHY   115       General Physics for Physical Sciences I                                             2 Units

Units and dimensions. Elements of vector algebra. Kinematics, linear and circular motion. Laws of mechanics and gravitation, simple applications, motion of planets. Conservation laws, energy, momentum; work and power. Rigid bodies moment of inertia. Angular momentum. Simple harmonic motion, simple and compound pendulums, damped and forced vibrations. Elasticity, modulus of elasticity, bending moments, fluid mechanics.

PHY    116      General Physics for Physical Sciences II                                            2    Units

Temperature and its measurement.  Heat capacity, specific heat, latent heat, critical points.  Calorimetry. Gas Laws; Kinetic theory of gases; thermal energy, work done by expanding gases; laws of thermodynamics. Liquefaction of gases. Heat transfer; conduction, convection, radiation.  longitudinal and transverse waves; vibrations in solids. Sound waves in solid, liquids, gases; pitch, intensity and quality of sound. Doppler effect.  Acoustics of buildings. Ultrasonics. Reflection and refraction of light; spherical mirrors; thin and thick lenses; optical instruments. Wave nature of light; interference, diffraction, polarization. Velocity of light

PHY    118      General Physics for Physical Sciences III                                            2   Units

Electrostatics; Coulomb’s law, electric field, Gauss’s law, electrostatic potential, fields due to simple charge distributions. Energy in electric fields, capacitance, Dielectrics, Polarization. Electric current, Ohms law, Elements of circuit theory. Thermoelectric effect.  Magnetic effects of current. Electromagnetics, Ampere’s law, field due to simple circuits. Permanent Magnetism, Earth’s magnetic field; ferromagnetism,. Faraday’s law of induction; generators, electric motors. Alternating currents, Moving coil instruments, Maxwell’s equations. Elements of atomic and nuclear physics.

PHY    121      Fundamentals of Physics I                                                                   3 Units

Units and dimensions. Vector algebra. Kinematics and dynamics of a mass point. Laws of mechanics and gravitation. Kepler’s laws. Motion of rigid bodies, moment of inertia; angular momentum. Simple harmonic motion. Elastic properties of solids, moduli of elasticity. Surface tension, viscosity; fluid mechanics and hydrodynamics. Ideal gas laws. Kinetic theory of gases

PHY    122      Fundamentals of Physics II                                                                3    Units

Heat and temperature. Calorimetry; Laws of thermodynamics. Change of state –critical points. Heat transfer; conduction, convection and radiation. blackbody radiation. wave motion, longitudinal and transverse waves. Superposition of waves, interference and diffraction.  Propagation of sound waves in material media, vibrations in solids; Wave theory of light, polarization of light. Rectilinear propagation of light, reflection, refraction; mirrors and lenses lens combinations, optical instrument. Doppler effect.

 PHY  124        Fundamentals  of Physics III                                                   3  Units

Electrostatics; Coulomb’s law, Gauss’s law, simple applications. Electric field, Electrostatic potential.  Energy in electric field, capacitance.  Insulators, conductors, dielectrics; polarization. Electric current.  Ohm’s law, circuit analysis.  Thermoelectricity.  Magnetic effects of current, Ampere’s law, Applications. Permanent magnetism, earth’s magnetic field. Faraday’s law of Induction.  Alternating currents & A.C circuits.  Measuring devices.  Motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields, Hall effect.  Atomic and Nuclear Structure.  Nuclear fission and fusion. Nuclear reactor. Maxwell’s equations. Alternating Currents, A.C. Circuits. Measuring devices. Motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields, Hall effect. Atomic and Nuclear Structure. Nuclear fission and fusion. Nuclear reactor.

 PHY   191       Practical Physics I                                                                 2   Units

Selected Experiments from the 100-level courses in Physics for Service Courses.

 PHY   195      Practical Physics   II                                                                               2    Units

Selected Experiments from the 100 – level courses in Physics for Physics Majors and Engineering students.

 PHY  196        Practical Physics  III                                       2    Units

 Selected Experiments from the 100 – Level Courses in Physics

 For Physics majors

 PHY  211        Structure of Matter                                                                                2    Units

(Prerequisite:  PHY 121 and PHY 122)

Structure of Solids, basic crystal structures, space lattices, primitive cells and Brillouin zones, Bragg’s law of reflection for X-rays.  Types of crystals, crystal binding and mechanical properties, theory of elasticity, Fluid mechanics, equation of continuity, supersonic flow.  Kinetic theory of gases; thermal conductivity, viscosity and diffusion of gases; gases at low pressures; van der Waals equation, Brownian motion.

PHY  221       Mechanics                                                                                               2   Units

(Prerequisite PHY 115 or PHY 121)

Kinematics and mechanics of many particle system; angular momentum.  Dynamics of rigid bodies, moment of inertia; symmetric top, gyroscope.  Central forces; gravitational potential problems. Coriolis force.  Kepler’s   laws of planetary motion. Inertial frames, Galilean transformation; Constancy of speed of light.  Lorentz   transformation, length contraction and time dilatation, Einstein’s mass-energy relation.

PHY 241        Waves                                                                                                   2     Units 

(Prerequisite:  PHY 116 or PHY 122)

General properties of wave motion, longitudinal and transverse waves.  Propagation of waves; effect of medium, dispersion, phase and group velocity, attenuation of waves.  Wave equations- plane wave solution, spherical and cylindrical wave solutions. Reflection and refraction of waves. Interference of waves  Vibrating strings, longitudinal waves in metal bar; free and forced vibrations, resonance,  coupled oscillations.  Fourier analysis.  Elastic waves in solids. Interference and diffraction of light.

PHY    242     Physics Optics                                                                                                            3 Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 116 or PHY 122)

Interference of light, types of fringes; division of wave front, Fresnel’s bi-prism, Rayleigh refreactometer; division of amplitude, interference in thin films. Newton’s rings, Michelson interferometer, Fabryperot interferometer, inference filters, Differaction; Fraunhofer diffraction, single slit, circular aperture; zone plate, Cornu’s spiral. Resolving power of optical instruments. Polarisation of light, production and analysis of polarized lights, optical activity, phase-contrast microscope.

PHY    251      Electromagnetism                                                                  2   Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 118 or PHY 124)

Electrostatics. Gauss’ Law. Fields of charge distribution, methods of images. Dielectrics, polarization, Electric current, current density. D.C. Network theory.  Amperes Law, Magnetic fields of simple circuits. Transients in capacitive and inductive circuits.  A.C. circuits analysis. Magnetization and hysteresis. Permanent magnetism – Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism and Ferromagnetism. Lorentz force. Hall effect. Maxwell’s equation – electromagnetic waves.

PHY    262      Introduction to Atomic & Nuclear Physics                                   2    Units

Experimental tests of inadequacies of classical physics, concept of quanta, wave-particle duality. Bohr’s theory of structure of atom and applications of Bohr’s theory. Broglie waves, Davisson &Germer’s experiment. Concept of spin – Pauli’s exclusion principle.  Introduction to atomic and molecular spectra. X-rays. Lasers. Radioactivity. Structure of nuclei.  Nuclear fission and fusion. Nuclear reactors. Feasibility of fusion  power; Detectors. Accelerators.

PHY    292      Practical Physics IV                                                                2   Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 195 or  PHY 196)

Selected Experiments from the 200-Level Physics Courses.

PHY    301      Methods of Theoretical Physics I                             3    Units

Rotation and Translation in three dimensional space, coordinate transformations; curvilinear coordinates. Basic properties of matrices and determinants.  Cauchy-Riemann relations, Partial Differentiation and double integrals. Power series. Complex variables, Argand diagram, Cauchy’s theorem, residue theorem and contour integrations applied to problems in Physics. Fourier’s analysis, Fourier transforms and their applications to problems in Physics. Dimensional analysis and applications. First and Second order Partial differential equations in Physics; Heat diffusion equation; wave equations. Methods of Solution; Separation of variables, Laplace transforms.  Special functions: Bessel Functions, Legendre and Hermite Polynomials, Spherical harmonics, Beta, Gamma and error functions and their applications.

PHY    302      Methods of Theoretical Physics II                                                               2 Units

Dimensional analysis and applications. First and Second order Partial differential equations in Physics; Heat diffusion equation; wave equations. Methods of Solution; Separation of variables, Laplace transforms, eigen values and eigen functions. Special functions: Bessel Functions, Legendre and Hermite Polynomials, Spherical Harmonics, Beta and Gamma Functions and their applications.

PHY    311      Solid State Physics I                                                  2    Units

Crystal structure of solids, space lattices, the reciprocal lattice primitive cells and Brillouin Zones: Miller indices, structure factor.  Crystal diffraction by X-rays, electrons and neutrons,. Crystal binding and mechanical properties of solids.  Theory of elasticity; lattice vibrations of monoatomic and diatomic linear chains; free electron theory of metals.

PHY 321      Relativity Physics                                                                     2     Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 221)

Galilean transformation, Michelson- Morley experiment,Constancy of velocity of light; limitations of classical mechanics. Lorentz transformations. Time dilation, length contraction, simultaneity of events, relativistic addition of velocities. Relativistic kinematics, Four vectors, relativistic invariance, invariance of Maxwell’s equation. Doppler effect. Mass-Energy equivalence.

PHY    331      Thermal Physics                                                                                3     Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 122)

Laws of thermodynamics and applications, Entropy. Third law of thermodynamics. reversible and irreversible processes – Carnot’s cycle, heat engines – isothermal and adiabatic expansion. Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell’s relations. Joule-Kelvin effect – refrigeration. Equation of state of perfect gas; Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, Partition function; Equipartition theorem. Low temperature physics. Blackbody radiation.

PHY    351      Electronics                                                                                         2     Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 251)

Electronic device characteristics, equivalent circuits; four terminal network. Various types of amplifiers, frequency and phase response, distortion, feedback oscillators. Semi-conductor theory and devices, characteristics; Communication systems: modulation, A.M, F.M, single side band; demodulation, Elements of logic circuitry. Analog to digital conversion. Computers.

PHY    362      Quantum Mechanics I                                                                      3    units

Wave-Particleduality. Fundamental postulates of quantum Mechanics-Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, statistical interpretation of wave function.  Correspondence principle: Hamilton-Jacobi equations, Schrodinger’s equation, application to one-dimensional time independent problems. Central force problems. Angular momentum and radial quantum numbers of hydrogen-like atoms. Introduction to scattering theory.

PHY    382      An Introduction to Astronomy                                                        3    units

Astronomical Units of mass, distance and time.  Optical and radio telescopes, observatories in space. Limitations due to nature of electromagnetic waves. Solar system, physics of planets and satellites, formation of planets, origin of the solar system. Stars-distances brightness, colours, luminosity, stellar types, spectra, stellar masses and dimension, stellar evolution. Herztprung-Russel diagram, exploding stars, supernova, neutron stars, pulsars, black holes. Galaxies, the Milky Way, classification of galaxies, abnormal galaxies, quasars, isotropy and homogeneity of the universe. Extra-terrestrial life.

PHY    391      Practical Physics V                                                                                   2   Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 292)

Selected Experiments from the 300-Level Physics Courses.

PHY    392      Practical Physics VI                                                                                 2   Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 391)

Selected Experiments from the 300-Level Physics Courses.

PHY    393      Workshop Course I (Mechanical)                                                  2     Units

Safety precautions in mechanical workshop/industries.  Units and measurements, materials and tools.  Use of various mechanical hand tools-hand files, hacksaw, drills, etc. Use of machine tools and practice-lathe machines, drilling machine, power hacksaw e.t.c Welding and fabrication practice. Maintenance and repair of machine tools, gears and threads.

 Woodwork tools and practice project. Technical drawing: Introduction to technical drawing, geometrical construction, isometric and oblique drawings. Orthographic projections – 1st and 3rd angle projections.

PHY 394         Workshop Course II (Electronics)                                                   2    Units

Safety precautions in electronic workshop/industries.  Units and measurements. Identification of electronic tools, electronic symbols and electronic components, colour codes in resistors and capacitors. Soldering techniques, circuits designs and wiring. Use of test equipment like multimeters, oscilloscopes and signal generators. Design and construction of power supply units, amplifiers, P.S.U. and phase-shift oscillators. Production line, role of computers. Projects.

PHY 396         Measurements and Instrumentation                                              2    Units

Measurements, nature, design of experiments, scales. Voltage and current measurements, digital voltmeters, measurement of A.C. voltage, average peak to peak response and r.m.s detectors, direct and alternating current probes.  Frequency and time measurements, standards, time signal broadcasting, frequency synthesizer. Signal analysis, digital analysis, digital techniques, Fourier transform techniques, signal statistics. Types of sensors; solid state, electrolytic, gaseous, ion, capacitor, magnetic induction and electronic sensors, various types of recorders. Basic principles of design, service and maintenance of instruments.

PHY 401         Computational Physics                                                                            2 Units

Use of numerical methods in Physics, Methods of solving non-linear equations, various methods of numerical integration, differentiation; numerical solutions of some differential equations in Physics; statistical analysis of experimental data. Computer programming in Fortran or C, use of flow diagrams, programming practice using some problems in Physics. Use of computers.

PHY    403      General Physics                                                                                        2 Units

Review of the five integrated themes in Physics, Viz.

 Concepts of space, time and motion. Conservation Principles- Energy, charge, angular momentum, e.t.c.  Fields – gravitational, magnetic, electrostatic, etc.  Waves and Quanta. Solution of simple problems on the above topics.

PHY    414      Introduction to industrial Processing                                                          2 Units

Basis principles of manufacturing. Measuring and gauging, cleaning and finishing. Mechanical working fundamentals – machining , rolling, forging, cutting, planning and drilling – use of the lathe family of machine tools. The laser – recent developments in manufacturing and material handling. Digital measurements and process control, automation. Quality control technique.

PHY 415         Science  of Materials                                                                                  3 Units

General introduction of materials and properties. Mechanical properties of materials;-tests to study stress, strain, ductility, hardness, toughness and fatigue. Work hardening, creep, fracture, fatigue. Recovery and recrystallization. Oxidation and corrosion. Study of imperfection, vacancies, dislocations, stacking faults and grain boundaries. Slip and twinning effects of defects. Theory and properties of simple alloys, the Hume-Rothery electron compounds, ordering in alloys, the long & short distance order theories. Electrical, electronic and optical properties of materials, electrical conduction, semiconductor materials, dielectrics, ferroelectrics and piezoelectric materials, ceramic magnetic materials.

Thermal properties of materials – heat capacity, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, thermal radiation, thermal stresses, corrosion and radiation effects and non-destructive testing of materials. 

PHY   416     Solid State Physics II                                                                                 2 Units

Nearly free electron theory of solids, Band theory of solids; metals, insulators and semi-conductors; Effective mass, Fermi surfaces, electrons and holes in semiconductors, Magnetic properties of materials- basic concepts,  diamagnetism, paramagnetism and ferromagnetism; magnetic anisotropy and magnetostriction. Superconductivity-electrical and thermal properties; Lasers and Masers. Optical properties of materials

PHY    418      Physical Metallurgy                                                                                      2 Units

Sources and methods of production of metal and alloys. Effects of heat treatment, irradiation and deformation on the physical properties of refracting and rare earth metals. Melting, casting, pressure working and heat treatment of metals and alloys, welding and soldering. Single crystals of metals and alloys; methods of growing, degree of purity, substructure. Optical and X-ray metallography; ultrasonic examination of metals and alloys. Physical metallurgy of steel Applications.

 PHY  421      Analytical Mechanics                                                                           2  Units

(Prerequisite:  PHY 221)

N-Particle systems; generalized coordinates; D’Alambert’s principle, Lagrangrian formulation; Hamiltonian formulation.  Hamilton-Jacobi  equations.  Canonical transformations, generators, Poisson brackets, Jacobi identity.  Continuous systems;  classical theory of fields.  Small oscillations

PHY  438          Statistical Physics                                                                           2 Units (Prerequisite:  PHY 331)

The perfect classical gas, equation of state; partition function; Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Femi-Dirac statistics; Einstein and Debye theory of specific heat ,of solids. Liquifaction of gases; production of  low temperatures, Nuclear demagnetization,  liquid helium, superfluidity, Bose-Einstein condensation. Negative temperatures. Gas, Kelvin and Magnetic temperature scales.           

PHY    441      Solar Energy I                                                                                                           2 Units

Development of alternative energy sources – solar, wind, geothermal and others. Survey of current solar energy activities and applications, solar radiation, radiation measuring instrument. The Basic flat plate collector, selective surfaces antireflective coatings, collector designs, thermal energy storage, high density batteries and fuel cells, solar houses, heat engines, thermal electric power generation, cooling and refrigeration, solar ponds distillation. Design, performance and economics of solar systems. Demonstration projects.

PHY    442      Solar Energy  II                                                                                             2 Units

Photoconductivity in solids, photo emission, photovoltaic generation of e.m.f., photovoltaic cells.  Amorphous photovoltaic cells and energy storage. Design performance and economics of solar photovoltaic systems. Measurement and Instrumentation for voltaic systems. Application of photovoltaic in industry and agriculture.

PHY    443      Biomass Energy                                                                                             2 Units

Photosynthesis, chemical processes and energy storage in plants.  Fuel wood, animal waste, manufacture of synthetic fuel e.g. methanol, from Biomass oxidation and hydrolysis of fuels. Wood stoves and burners. Desertification and fuel wood conservation.

PHY    444      Fossil Energy                                                                                                 2 Units

Conventional sources of energy- petroleum and gas, coal, hydroelectric and thermal power stations. Petroleum exploration, mining and refining.  Design, operation and economics of conventional fossil energy conversion and conservation systems, turbines, generators, boilers and internal combustion engines. Energy consumption in industry, transportation and other sectors.

PHY    445      Nuclear Energy I                                                                                           2 Units

Nuclear reactions, cross sections, theory of beta decay. Nuclear fission: properties and relation to nuclear power. Slowing down of neutrons in media-neutron induced chain reactions. Various nuclear models. Nuclear  fusion-thermo-nuclear reactions. Nuclear instrumentation. Radiation protection and control. Sources of nuclear materials.

PHY    446      Nuclear  Energy II                                                                                        2 Units

Basic reactor designs-light and heavy water reactors, molten salt breaker reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, power plant thermodynamics, reactor heat generation and removal. Basic plasma physics-magnetohydrodynamic equation.

PHY   451       Electromagnetic Theory                                           2  Units (Prerequisite:  PHY 251)

Maxwell’s equations, Poynting Vector, propagation of electromagnetic waves, polarization, reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves.  Retarded and  advanced  potentials.  Transmission lines, wave guides, resonant cavities.  Antenna, antenna  arrays.  Radiation from moving charges.

PHY  452  Industrial Electronics                                                                           2   Unit

Operational amplifiers and their applications, analog computers, Electronic building blocks, design of digital systems.  Binary codes, logic gates, logic operations.  Digital computers, Solid state devices, Zener diodes, Tunnel diodes, solar cells, particle counters. Telecommunications, telephony, telegraphy, telex, telemetry, antenna systems.  AM and FM radio transmitters and receivers, television.  Electron microscope.  Electronic control of Industrial processes.

PHY  461       Quantum Mechanics II                                                                       3   Units

State vectors and operators in Quantum mechanics-Schrodinger, Heisenberg and interaction representations.    Harmonic oscillator– creation and annihilation operators approach.  Angular momenta.  Time independent and time dependent perturbation theories:  application to laser systems.  Identical  particles and the spin-statistics theorem.  Theory of scattering.

 PHY    462      Nuclear Physics                                                                                3   Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 262)

Nuclear structure, binding, stability, the liquid drop model, the shell model.  Nuclear reactions, general features, kinematics of the compound nucleus, Breit-Wigner formula, nuclear fission.  Reactor physics, chain reaction, thermalization of neutrons, moderators, properties, basic interpretations.  Particle detectors.  High energy accelerators.

PHY    471      Meteorology                                                                                                   2 Units

Earth’s atmosphere; use of fluid dynamics; effect of rotation of the earth. Sources of atmospheric motion, energy from the sun, periodic variation of solar energy. Composition of the atmosphere, different layers, effect of composition absorption of solar energy in the atmosphere. Distribution of temperature. Cloud formation, physics of clouds, Isotherms, isobars, weather charts. Various weather systems, land  and sea breezes, monsoon, dust haze, cyclones. Weather forecasting.

PHY    472      Aeronomy                                                                                                      2 Units

Composition of the atmosphere; temperature, ionization. Influence of the sun on the atmosphere. The neutral atmosphere, pressure, density and temperature distribution. Formation of ionized layers, Chapman theory; Propagation of electromagnetic waves in ionized medium; Experimental techniques for probing the ionosphere. Earth’s magnetic field in space, magnetic variation, ionosperic conductivities and dynamo theory. Trapping of charged particles in the earth’s magnetic field. Magnetic storms. The equatorial ionosphere. Ionosphere irregularities. Elements of airglow and aurora.

PHY    475      Industrial Geophysics                                                                                               2 Units

Introduction to seismic, gravitational, magnetic electrical/electromagnetic, induced population, well-logging and radioactivity methods as applied to prospecting for economic mineral deposits. Use of geophysics in  the solution of civil engineering problems.

PHY    473      Physics of the Earth’s Interior                                                                     2 Units

Origin shape, structure and major divisions of the earth. Radioactivity and the ages of rocks. Temperature and temperature gradients, thermal conductivity of the earth; generation of heat in the earth, heat flow through the earth’s surface. Elasticity of the earth and earth tides. The earth’s magnetic field and its distribution In space, secular variation, electrical theory of the earth’s core and origin of the main magnetic field; polar wandering; secular motion of the mean pole, Sea floor spreading continental drift and plate tectonics.

PHY    485      Galaxies                                                                                                          2 Units

The Milky Way, stellar and gas content, kinematics and mass distribution, spiral structure, 21 cm. Line studies of galactic structure, star clusters. Radio emission from galaxies. Morphology and classification of galaxies; general properties of galaxies; Systems of galaxies, interaction between galaxies, magnetic fields. Connection between galaxies. Radio galaxies and quasi-stellar objects.

PHY    486      Stellar Structure and Evolution                                                                   2 Units

Physics of the stellar interior, equilibrium equation of stellar structure continuity of mars, hydrostatic equilibrium, thermal equilibrium, energy production. Energy, transport, radiation, conduction, convection, neutrinos; stability against convection. Equations of stste; effects of degeneracy, relativity; Opacity. Energy generations nuclear reaction in stars. Stellar models; solutions of the equations of stellar structure; polytropic, analytic, linear and numerical models. Survey of present knowledge of stellar evolution. Hertzprung-Russel diagram.

PHY    487      High Energy Astrophysics                                                                            2 Units

X-ray, gamma-rays, high energy particles; their interactions with matter, nuclear reactions; spallation, observational techniques, Cosmic ray astrophysics; historical development; definition of rigidity; solar wind; flux freezing; solar modulation; the galaxy; diffusion loss equation for electrons in the galaxy. Synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering; Supernova, Galactic and extragalactic origin of cosmic rays, shock waves; super –novae. Chells; neutron stars and pulsars; the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays.

PHY    488      Modern cosmology                                                                                        2 Units

The content of the universe. The cosmological principle; Olber’s paradox; Hubble’s law; theories of gravitation, variation of the constancy of nature with time. The Robertson-Walker line elements, the dynamics of world models, Hubble’s’ constant, red shift-magnitude relations, source counts, the luminosity –volume tests, angular diameter- red shift tests.

PHY    491      Practical Physics VII                                                                         2 Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 391 and PHY 392)         

Selected Experiments from the 400-Level Physics Courses

PHY    492      Practical Physics VIII                                                                                   2 Units

(Prerequisite: PHY 491)

Selected Experiments from the 400-Level Physics Courses.